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Long-term changes in the radiative effects of aerosols and clouds in a mid-latitude region (1985-2010)

As clouds and aerosols are the main sources of uncertainty in the determination of the energy balance of the Earth, there is a growing interest in the evaluation of their radiative effects. Hence, in this work, long-term data of shortwave radiation from 13 locations over Spain (South-Western Europe) are used to investigate, for the first time, the radiative effects of clouds and aerosols in the period 1985-2010. In particular, monthly radiation data from ground-based observations and radiative transfer simulations fed with reanalysis data of ozone, water vapour and surface albedo, are used to evaluate the cloud and aerosol radiative effect (CARE). Annual values of the CARE become less negative from Northern to Southern stations. For instance, the annual CARE values for Bilbao (North), Valladolid (Centre), and Murcia (South) are -82, -46, and -42Wm-2, respectively. CARE averages exhibit a clear seasonal pattern with the strongest contribution during spring and summer months. Particularly in these seasons, there is a very high correlation between CARE values and sunshine duration, number of cloud-free days, and temperature. Additionally, a significant decrease of the radiative effects of the clouds and aerosols is observed over Spain in the last 26 years. Overall, the linear trend of the mean annual CARE series over Spain is statistically significant with positive sign, 3.1Wm-2 per decade. The significant trend values at individual stations range between 2.9 and 5.2Wm-2 per decade. Seasonal trends in summer and spring are larger than in autumn and winter. Finally, the radiative effects of water vapour and ozone were also evaluated showing an annual mean over Spain of about -10Wm-2 and -1Wm-2, respectively. However, no significant trends were observed for these two variables between 1985 and 2010

ECMWF ERA-Interim data used in this study have been obtained from the ECMWF data server: http://data.ecmwEint/data. Analyses and visualisations of MERRA data used in this paper were produced with the Giovanni online data system, developed and maintained by the NASA GES DISC. Manuel Anton thanks Ministerio de Ciencia e InnovaciOn and Fondo Social Europeo for the award of a postdoctoral grant (Ramon y Cajal). Arturo Sanchez-Lorenzo thanks the "Secretaria per a Universitats i Recerca del Departament d鈥橢conomia i Coneixement de la Generalitat de Catalunya i del programa Cofund de les Accions Marie Curie del 7e Programa marc d鈥橰 + D de la Unio Europea" (2011 BP-B00078) and Josep Calbo thanks the project NUCLIERSOL (CGL2010-18546) funded by the Spanish Government We also thank the Spanish Meteorological Agency (AEMET) for providing the surface solar radiation data and the climatological averages of the sunshine duration and number of cloud-free days

漏 Global and Planetary Change, 2013, vol. 111, p. 288-295

Elsevier

Author: Mateos, David
Ant贸n, Manuel
S谩nchez Lorenzo, Arturo
Calb贸 Angrill, Josep
Wild, Martin
Date: 2013
Abstract: As clouds and aerosols are the main sources of uncertainty in the determination of the energy balance of the Earth, there is a growing interest in the evaluation of their radiative effects. Hence, in this work, long-term data of shortwave radiation from 13 locations over Spain (South-Western Europe) are used to investigate, for the first time, the radiative effects of clouds and aerosols in the period 1985-2010. In particular, monthly radiation data from ground-based observations and radiative transfer simulations fed with reanalysis data of ozone, water vapour and surface albedo, are used to evaluate the cloud and aerosol radiative effect (CARE). Annual values of the CARE become less negative from Northern to Southern stations. For instance, the annual CARE values for Bilbao (North), Valladolid (Centre), and Murcia (South) are -82, -46, and -42Wm-2, respectively. CARE averages exhibit a clear seasonal pattern with the strongest contribution during spring and summer months. Particularly in these seasons, there is a very high correlation between CARE values and sunshine duration, number of cloud-free days, and temperature. Additionally, a significant decrease of the radiative effects of the clouds and aerosols is observed over Spain in the last 26 years. Overall, the linear trend of the mean annual CARE series over Spain is statistically significant with positive sign, 3.1Wm-2 per decade. The significant trend values at individual stations range between 2.9 and 5.2Wm-2 per decade. Seasonal trends in summer and spring are larger than in autumn and winter. Finally, the radiative effects of water vapour and ozone were also evaluated showing an annual mean over Spain of about -10Wm-2 and -1Wm-2, respectively. However, no significant trends were observed for these two variables between 1985 and 2010
ECMWF ERA-Interim data used in this study have been obtained from the ECMWF data server: http://data.ecmwEint/data. Analyses and visualisations of MERRA data used in this paper were produced with the Giovanni online data system, developed and maintained by the NASA GES DISC. Manuel Anton thanks Ministerio de Ciencia e InnovaciOn and Fondo Social Europeo for the award of a postdoctoral grant (Ramon y Cajal). Arturo Sanchez-Lorenzo thanks the "Secretaria per a Universitats i Recerca del Departament d鈥橢conomia i Coneixement de la Generalitat de Catalunya i del programa Cofund de les Accions Marie Curie del 7e Programa marc d鈥橰 + D de la Unio Europea" (2011 BP-B00078) and Josep Calbo thanks the project NUCLIERSOL (CGL2010-18546) funded by the Spanish Government We also thank the Spanish Meteorological Agency (AEMET) for providing the surface solar radiation data and the climatological averages of the sunshine duration and number of cloud-free days
Format: application/pdf
ISSN: 0921-8181
Document access: http://hdl.handle.net/10256/11852
Language: eng
Publisher: Elsevier
Collection: MICINN/PN 2011-2014/CGL2010-18546
SUR/2011 BP-B 00078
Reproducci贸 digital del document publicat a: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.gloplacha.2013.10.004
Articles publicats (D-F)
Is part of: 漏 Global and Planetary Change, 2013, vol. 111, p. 288-295
Rights: Tots els drets reservats
Subject: Radiaci贸 solar -- Espanya
Solar radiation -- Spain
Aerosols radioactius
Aerosols, Radioactive
Title: Long-term changes in the radiative effects of aerosols and clouds in a mid-latitude region (1985-2010)
Type: info:eu-repo/semantics/article
Repository: DUGiDocs

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