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Behavioural and physical effects of arsenic exposure in fish are aggravated by aquatic algae

Arsenic contamination has global impacts and freshwaters are major arsenic repositories. Arsenic toxicity depends on numerous interacting factors which makes effects difficult to estimate. The use of aquatic algae is often advocated for bioremediation of arsenic contaminated waters as they absorb arsenate and transform it into arsenite and methylated chemical species. Fish are another key constituent of aquatic ecosystems. Contamination in natural systems is often too low to cause mortality but sufficient to interfere with normal functioning. Alteration of complex, naturally occurring fish behaviours such as foraging and aggression are ecologically relevant indicators of toxicity and ideal for assessing sublethal impacts. We examined the effects of arsenic exposure in the invasive mosquitofish, Gambusia holbrooki, in a laboratory experiment incorporating some of the complexity of natural systems by including the interacting effects of aquatic algae. Our aims were to quantify the effects of arsenic on some complex behaviours and physical parameters in mosquitofish, and to assess whether the detoxifying mechanisms of algae would ameliorate any effects of arsenic exposure. Aggression increased significantly with arsenic whereas operculum movement decreased non-significantly and neither food capture efficiency nor consumption were notably affected. Bioaccumulation increased with arsenic and unexpectedly so did fish biomass. Possibly increased aggression facilitated food resource defence allowing fish to gain weight. The presence of algae aggravated the effects of arsenic exposure. For increase in fish biomass, algae acted antagonistically with arsenic, resulting in a disadvantageous reduction in weight gained. For bioaccumulation the effects were even more severe, as algae operated additively with arsenic to increase arsenic uptake and/or assimilation. Aggression was also highest in the presence of both algae and arsenic. Bioremediation of arsenic contaminated waters using aquatic algae should therefore be carried out with consideration of entire ecosystem effects. We highlight that multidisciplinary, cross-taxon research, particularly integrating behavioural and other effects, is crucial for understanding the impacts of arsenic toxicity and thus restoration of aquatic ecosystems

AcknowledgmentsThis research was supported by a Marie Curie InternationalReintegration Grant within the 7th European Community Frame-work Programme (KM). Additional financial support was providedby the Spanish Ministry of Science and Innovation (projectsCTM2009-14111-CO2-01, CGL2009-12877-C02-01, and CSD2009-00065) and the University of Girona (project SING12/09). LBF and PSbenefited from doctoral fellowships from the University of Girona(BR 2013/06) and the European Commission (Erasmus MundusPartnership “Techno”, 204323-1-2011-1-FR-EMA21) respectively.Thanks to Roberto Merciai for help with fish dissection, EstherPérez for assistance with lab set-up, and the Unit of Structural andChemical Analyses of the Technical Research Services of the Uni-versity of Girona for the arsenic analyses

© Aquatic Toxicology, 2014, vol. 156, p. 116-124

Elsevier

Autor: Magellan, Kit
Barral Fraga, Laura
Rovira, Marona
Srean, Pao
Urrea Clos, Gemma
García-Berthou, Emili
Guasch i Padró, Helena
Data: 2014
Resum: Arsenic contamination has global impacts and freshwaters are major arsenic repositories. Arsenic toxicity depends on numerous interacting factors which makes effects difficult to estimate. The use of aquatic algae is often advocated for bioremediation of arsenic contaminated waters as they absorb arsenate and transform it into arsenite and methylated chemical species. Fish are another key constituent of aquatic ecosystems. Contamination in natural systems is often too low to cause mortality but sufficient to interfere with normal functioning. Alteration of complex, naturally occurring fish behaviours such as foraging and aggression are ecologically relevant indicators of toxicity and ideal for assessing sublethal impacts. We examined the effects of arsenic exposure in the invasive mosquitofish, Gambusia holbrooki, in a laboratory experiment incorporating some of the complexity of natural systems by including the interacting effects of aquatic algae. Our aims were to quantify the effects of arsenic on some complex behaviours and physical parameters in mosquitofish, and to assess whether the detoxifying mechanisms of algae would ameliorate any effects of arsenic exposure. Aggression increased significantly with arsenic whereas operculum movement decreased non-significantly and neither food capture efficiency nor consumption were notably affected. Bioaccumulation increased with arsenic and unexpectedly so did fish biomass. Possibly increased aggression facilitated food resource defence allowing fish to gain weight. The presence of algae aggravated the effects of arsenic exposure. For increase in fish biomass, algae acted antagonistically with arsenic, resulting in a disadvantageous reduction in weight gained. For bioaccumulation the effects were even more severe, as algae operated additively with arsenic to increase arsenic uptake and/or assimilation. Aggression was also highest in the presence of both algae and arsenic. Bioremediation of arsenic contaminated waters using aquatic algae should therefore be carried out with consideration of entire ecosystem effects. We highlight that multidisciplinary, cross-taxon research, particularly integrating behavioural and other effects, is crucial for understanding the impacts of arsenic toxicity and thus restoration of aquatic ecosystems
AcknowledgmentsThis research was supported by a Marie Curie InternationalReintegration Grant within the 7th European Community Frame-work Programme (KM). Additional financial support was providedby the Spanish Ministry of Science and Innovation (projectsCTM2009-14111-CO2-01, CGL2009-12877-C02-01, and CSD2009-00065) and the University of Girona (project SING12/09). LBF and PSbenefited from doctoral fellowships from the University of Girona(BR 2013/06) and the European Commission (Erasmus MundusPartnership “Techno”, 204323-1-2011-1-FR-EMA21) respectively.Thanks to Roberto Merciai for help with fish dissection, EstherPérez for assistance with lab set-up, and the Unit of Structural andChemical Analyses of the Technical Research Services of the Uni-versity of Girona for the arsenic analyses
Format: application/pdf
Cita: 0166445X
Accés al document: http://hdl.handle.net/10256/12039
Llenguatge: eng
Editor: Elsevier
Col·lecció: MICINN/PN 2010-2012/CTM2009-14111-C02-01
MICINN/PN 2010-2012/CGL2009-12877-C02-01
MICINN/PN 2009-2014/CSD2009-00065
Reproducció digital del document publicat a: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.aquatox.2014.08.006
Articles publicats (D-CCAA)
És part de: © Aquatic Toxicology, 2014, vol. 156, p. 116-124
Drets: Tots els drets reservats
Matèria: Aigua dolça -- Contaminació
Freshwater -- Pollution
Arsènic -- Toxicologia
Arsenic -- Toxicology
Arsènic -- Aspectes ambientals
Arsenic -- Environmental aspects
Títol: Behavioural and physical effects of arsenic exposure in fish are aggravated by aquatic algae
Tipus: info:eu-repo/semantics/article
Repositori: DUGiDocs

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