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Spectroscopic Analyses on Reaction Intermediates Formed during Chlorination of Alkanes with NaOCl Catalyzed by a Nickel Complex

The spectroscopic, electrochemical, and crystallographic characterization of [(Me,HPyTACN)NiII(CH3CN)2](OTf)2 (1) (Me,HPyTACN = 1-(2-pyridylmethyl)-4,7-dimethyl-1,4,7-triazacyclononane, OTf = CF3SO3) is described together with its reactivity with NaOCl. 1 catalyzes the chlorination of alkanes with NaOCl, producing only a trace amount of oxygenated byproducts. The reaction was monitored spectroscopically and by high resolution electrospray-mass spectrometry (ESI-MS) with the aim to elucidate mechanistic aspects. NaOCl reacts with 1 in acetonitrile to form the transient species [(L)NiII-OCl(S)]+ (A) (L = Me,HPyTACN, S = solvent), which was identified by ESI-MS. UV/vis absorption, electron paramagnetic resonance, and resonance Raman spectroscopy indicate that intermediate A decays to the complex [(L)NiIII-OH(S)]2+ (B) presumably through homolytic cleavage of the O-Cl bond, which liberates a Cl• atom. Hydrolysis of acetonitrile to acetic acid under the applied conditions results in the formation of [(L)NiIII-OOCCH3(S)]2+ (C), which undergoes subsequent reduction to [(L)NiII-OOCCH3(S)]2+ (D), presumably via reaction with OCl- or ClO2 -. Subsequent addition of NaOCl to [(L)NiII-OOCCH3(S)]+ (D) regenerates [(L)NiIII-OH(S)]2+ (B) to a much greater extent and at a faster rate. Addition of acids such as acetic and triflic acid enhances the rate and extent of formation of [(L)NiIII-OH(S)]2+ (B) from 1, suggesting that O-Cl homolytic cleavage is accelerated by protonation. Overall, these reactions generate Cl• atoms and ClO2 in a catalytic cycle where the nickel center alternates between Ni(II) and Ni(III). Chlorine atoms in turn react with the C-H bonds of alkanes, forming alkyl radicals that are trapped by Cl• to form alkyl chlorides

Financial support comes from the European Research Council (ERC-2011-StG-279549, W.R.B. and ERC-2009-StG-239910, M.C.), The Netherlands Fund for Technology and Science STW (11059, W.R.B.) the Ministry of Education, Culture and Science (Gravity program 024.001.035, A.D., W.R.B.) and the Ubbo Emmius Fund of the University of Groningen (AD). M.C. thanks MINECO of Spain (CTQ2012 37420-C02-01/BQU, CSD2010-00065) and Generalitat de Catalunya (2009SGR637, and ICREA Acadèmia Award)

© Inorganic Chemistry, 2015, vol. 54, p. 10656-10666

American Chemical Society (ACS)

Author: Draksharapu, Apparao
Codolà Duch, Zoel
Gómez Martín, Laura
Lloret Fillol, Julio
Browne, Wesley R.
Costas Salgueiro, Miquel
Date: 2015 November 5
Abstract: The spectroscopic, electrochemical, and crystallographic characterization of [(Me,HPyTACN)NiII(CH3CN)2](OTf)2 (1) (Me,HPyTACN = 1-(2-pyridylmethyl)-4,7-dimethyl-1,4,7-triazacyclononane, OTf = CF3SO3) is described together with its reactivity with NaOCl. 1 catalyzes the chlorination of alkanes with NaOCl, producing only a trace amount of oxygenated byproducts. The reaction was monitored spectroscopically and by high resolution electrospray-mass spectrometry (ESI-MS) with the aim to elucidate mechanistic aspects. NaOCl reacts with 1 in acetonitrile to form the transient species [(L)NiII-OCl(S)]+ (A) (L = Me,HPyTACN, S = solvent), which was identified by ESI-MS. UV/vis absorption, electron paramagnetic resonance, and resonance Raman spectroscopy indicate that intermediate A decays to the complex [(L)NiIII-OH(S)]2+ (B) presumably through homolytic cleavage of the O-Cl bond, which liberates a Cl• atom. Hydrolysis of acetonitrile to acetic acid under the applied conditions results in the formation of [(L)NiIII-OOCCH3(S)]2+ (C), which undergoes subsequent reduction to [(L)NiII-OOCCH3(S)]2+ (D), presumably via reaction with OCl- or ClO2 -. Subsequent addition of NaOCl to [(L)NiII-OOCCH3(S)]+ (D) regenerates [(L)NiIII-OH(S)]2+ (B) to a much greater extent and at a faster rate. Addition of acids such as acetic and triflic acid enhances the rate and extent of formation of [(L)NiIII-OH(S)]2+ (B) from 1, suggesting that O-Cl homolytic cleavage is accelerated by protonation. Overall, these reactions generate Cl• atoms and ClO2 in a catalytic cycle where the nickel center alternates between Ni(II) and Ni(III). Chlorine atoms in turn react with the C-H bonds of alkanes, forming alkyl radicals that are trapped by Cl• to form alkyl chlorides
Financial support comes from the European Research Council (ERC-2011-StG-279549, W.R.B. and ERC-2009-StG-239910, M.C.), The Netherlands Fund for Technology and Science STW (11059, W.R.B.) the Ministry of Education, Culture and Science (Gravity program 024.001.035, A.D., W.R.B.) and the Ubbo Emmius Fund of the University of Groningen (AD). M.C. thanks MINECO of Spain (CTQ2012 37420-C02-01/BQU, CSD2010-00065) and Generalitat de Catalunya (2009SGR637, and ICREA Acadèmia Award)
Format: application/pdf
ISSN: 0020-1669 (versió paper)
1520-510X (versió electrònica)
Document access: http://hdl.handle.net/10256/12123
Language: eng
Publisher: American Chemical Society (ACS)
Collection: MINECO/PN 2013-2015/CTQ2012-37420-C02-01
MICINN/PN 2010-2016/CSD2010-00065
AGAUR/2009-2014/2009 SGR-637
Reproducció digital del document publicat a: http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acs.inorgchem.5b01463
Articles publicats (D-Q)
info:eu-repo/grantAgreement/EC/FP7/239910
Is part of: © Inorganic Chemistry, 2015, vol. 54, p. 10656-10666
Rights: Tots els drets reservats
Subject: Anàlisi espectral
Spectrum analysis
Catalitzadors
Catalysts
Title: Spectroscopic Analyses on Reaction Intermediates Formed during Chlorination of Alkanes with NaOCl Catalyzed by a Nickel Complex
Type: info:eu-repo/semantics/article
Repository: DUGiDocs

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