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Degradation of the cytostatic etoposide in chlorinated water by liquid chromatography coupled to quadrupole-Orbitrap mass spectrometry: Identification and quantification of by-products in real water samples

Once discharged into the sewage system, many pharmaceuticals may undergo degradation reactions in the presence of chemical disinfectants, generating by-products that may possess enhanced toxicity relative to the parent compounds. For this reason, the stability of the widely used cytostatic etoposide in chlorinated water has been investigated for the first time in the present work. Taking advantage of the high-resolution/accurate-mass capabilities of the hybrid quadrupole-Orbitrap mass spectrometer Q Exactive, two new oxidation by-products of etoposide were reliably identified. The time course of etoposide and its by-products was followed at different pH values, free chlorine concentrations and water matrices. Finally, the occurrence of etoposide and its major identified by-product (3’-O-desmethyl etoposide) was investigated in real water samples by on-line solid-phase extraction-liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry using a 4000QTRAP hybrid quadrupole-linear ion trap mass spectrometer. The etoposide by-product was found in various river and wastewater samples at levels between 14 and 33ngL-1, whereas etoposide was not detected in any sample

This study has been financially supported by the EU through the FP7 projects CytoThreat (265264) and SOLUTIONS (603437), by the Spanish Ministry of Economy and Competitiveness through the project SCARCE (Consolider-Ingenio 2010 CSD2009-00065), and by the Generalitat de Catalunya (Consolidated Research Groups “2014 SGR 418—Water and Soil Quality Unit” and 2014 SGR 291—ICRA)

© Science of the Total Environment, 2015, vol. 506-507, p. 36-45

Elsevier

Author: Negreira, Noelia
López de Alda, Miren
Barceló i Cullerés, Damià
Date: 2015 February 15
Abstract: Once discharged into the sewage system, many pharmaceuticals may undergo degradation reactions in the presence of chemical disinfectants, generating by-products that may possess enhanced toxicity relative to the parent compounds. For this reason, the stability of the widely used cytostatic etoposide in chlorinated water has been investigated for the first time in the present work. Taking advantage of the high-resolution/accurate-mass capabilities of the hybrid quadrupole-Orbitrap mass spectrometer Q Exactive, two new oxidation by-products of etoposide were reliably identified. The time course of etoposide and its by-products was followed at different pH values, free chlorine concentrations and water matrices. Finally, the occurrence of etoposide and its major identified by-product (3’-O-desmethyl etoposide) was investigated in real water samples by on-line solid-phase extraction-liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry using a 4000QTRAP hybrid quadrupole-linear ion trap mass spectrometer. The etoposide by-product was found in various river and wastewater samples at levels between 14 and 33ngL-1, whereas etoposide was not detected in any sample
This study has been financially supported by the EU through the FP7 projects CytoThreat (265264) and SOLUTIONS (603437), by the Spanish Ministry of Economy and Competitiveness through the project SCARCE (Consolider-Ingenio 2010 CSD2009-00065), and by the Generalitat de Catalunya (Consolidated Research Groups “2014 SGR 418—Water and Soil Quality Unit” and 2014 SGR 291—ICRA)
Format: application/pdf
ISSN: 0048-9697
Document access: http://hdl.handle.net/10256/12578
Language: eng
Publisher: Elsevier
Collection: MICINN/PN 2009-2014/CSD2009-00065
Reproducció digital del document publicat a: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2014.10.097
Articles publicats (ICRA)
Is part of: © Science of the Total Environment, 2015, vol. 506-507, p. 36-45
Rights: Tots els drets reservats
Subject: Aigua -- Contaminació
Water -- Pollution
Contaminants emergents en l’aigua
Emerging contaminants in water
Cromatografia de líquids
Liquid chromatography
Etopòsid -- Biodegradació
Etoposide -- Biodegradation
Title: Degradation of the cytostatic etoposide in chlorinated water by liquid chromatography coupled to quadrupole-Orbitrap mass spectrometry: Identification and quantification of by-products in real water samples
Type: info:eu-repo/semantics/article
Repository: DUGiDocs

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